Thrombin (activated Factor II [IIa]) also commonly called pro-thrombin is a coagulation protein in the blood stream that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. It is a serine protease (EC 18.104.22.168) that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, as well as catalyzing many other coagulation-related reactions.
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to an active form that assembles into fibrin. Thrombin also activates factor XI, factor V, and factor VIII. This positive feedback accelerates the production of thrombin.
Factor XIII is also activated by thrombin. Factor XIIIa is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds between lysine and glutamine residues in fibrin. The covalent bonds increase the stability of the fibrin clot.
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