Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and in small amounts in the tissues of many animals, including humans.Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing (sulfhydryl) amino acid, cysteine. Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids.
Taurine is named after the Latin taurus, which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.Strictly speaking, it is not an amino acid as it lacks a carboxyl group,but it is often called one, even in scientific literature.It does contain a sulfonate group and may be called an amino sulfonic acid. Small polypeptides have been identified which contain taurine, but to date no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has been identified as specifically recognizing taurine and capable of incorporating it into a tRNA
Taurine is used as a functional food in many energy drinks and energy products Despite being present in many energy foods, it has not been proven to be energy-giving. A study of mice hereditarily unable to transport taurine suggests that it is needed for proper maintenance and functioning of skeletal muscles.Additionally, it has been shown to be effective in removing fatty liver deposits in humans, preventing liver disease, and reducing cirrhosis in rats.
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